Mineral-bone disorders (MBD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) manifest by hyperphosphatemia, vitamin D deficiency, overproduction of fibroblast growth factor-23, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. CKD-MBD also results in bone resorp-tion and ectopic calcification that is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. Diet is the initial and obligatory approach to treatment for CKD-MBD. Sevelamer is frequently used for correction of hyperphosphatemia in patients with renal failure who present with calcification of arteries, adynamic bone disease and/or stably low serum parathyroid hormone levels. Calcimimetics, that is, cinacalcet and evocalcet, are widely used in hemodialysis patients who do not respond to treatment with vitamin D.
Chronic kidney disease, mineral-bone disorders, hyperphosphatemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D, renal failure, hemodialysis, sevelamer, cynacalcet, evocalcet.