AA-amyloidosis in autoinflammatory diseases

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AA amyloidosis complicates various chronic inflammatory disorders and is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid fibrils composed of serum amyloid A protein, an acute phase reactant. In recent decades, the role of chronic infections and rheumatoid arthritis in the ethiology of AA amyloidosis have decreased significantly as a result of their treatment improvement, whereas both monogenic (familial Meditarranean fever, cryopirin-associated periodic syndrome, etc.) or polygenic (ankylosing spondilitis, psoriatic arthritis, adult onset Still’s disease, etc) autoinflammatory diseases more frequently account for AA-amyloidosis today. Autoinflammatory diseases are a consequence of innate immunity disorders although the latter can contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases as well. In patients with autoinflammatory diseases, the suppression of inflammation, even subclinical, is essential to prevent development or progression of AA amyloidosis. The choice of inflammatory agents that can be used to achieve this aim depends on the pathogenesis of autoinflammation, e.g. key mediators that are involved in the activation of inflammatory cascade.

Key words

AA-amyloidosis, SAA, autoinflammatory diseases