Anxiety, depression and sleep disorders after COVID-19

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At the beginning of 2020, a novel coronavirus designated as SARS-CoV-2 emerged in China and caused an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pandemic has threatened global mental health via disruptive societal changes and neuropsychiatric sequelae including depression, anxiety and sleep disorders after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Virus is able to access CNS through blood circulation or neural pathway. Brain damage can be also due to hypoxia, hypercoagulation and endothelial dysfunction. The effects of psychological stressors and drug therapy may be also relevant for development of neuropsychiatric disorders after COVID-19. Women and patients with a history of mental disorders are more susceptible to neuropsychiatric disorders and frequently present with more severe complications. Affective, anxiety or psychotic disorders can persist for 6 months after recovery from COVID-19. These data highlight the need in drug therapy to treat depression and anxiety, to normalize sleep and to prevent the development of serious neuropsychiatric sequelae of infection.

Key words

COVID-19, anxiety, depression, sleep disorders