COVID-19 as a systemic disease

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COVID-19 usually manifests by respiratory symptoms. However, it would be an erroneous simplification to consider it as a local respiratory disease. The nervous system and intestines are often involved even in patients with mild infection, although the risk of dissemination of the infectious process and the development of severe systemic disease is mainly associated with lung damage. The addition of infectious thrombotic microvasculitis (endothelitis) to bronchopneumonia-alveolitis not only forms a substrate for respiratory failure, but also increases a risk of viruses entry into the bloodstream. Viral sepsis develops, whereas inflammatory thrombosis damages new areas of the vascular bed. These mechanisms or direct viral invasion can result in involvement of many tissues and organs in the pathological process. This review examines the molecular, cellular and clinical manifestations and complications of the new coronavirus disease.

Key words

COVID-19, lung, extrapulmonary, systemic, sepsis, thrombosis, endothelitis.