To evaluate the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to ICUs for respiratory support in Russia.
Material and methods
In a retrospective study, we collected medical records submitted via Internet by the local COVID-19 hospitals across Russia to the Federal Center at the Sechenov University (Moscow) that provided advice on the antiviral therapy and critical care management. Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia was confirmed both by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and CT. In patients with inconclusive or pending results of PCR, the SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia was defined as severe acute respiratory infection with typical CT findings and no other obvious aetiology.
We studied 1007 patients with SARS-CoV-2 induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), including 572 males and 435 females at the average age of 60.7±13.7 years. Most patients (92.5%) were older than 40. Six hundred twenty five medical records (62.1%) were received from Moscow and Moscow province, and 382 records (37.9%) were submitted by the hospitals located in 58 regions of Russia. Seven hundred eighty patients (77.5%) required invasive ventilation. Cardiovascular diseases were identified in 619 ICU patients (61.4%) and included arterial hypertension (56.3%), coronary artery disease (16.3%), stroke (7.1%), and atrial fibrillation (9.3%). Type 2 diabetes was detected in 252 (25.0%) patients and obesity in 263 patients (26.1%). The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes was higher in females and increased with age. Of note, 280 patients (27.8%) had no cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or obesity. The occurrence of bronchial asthma (2.3%), COPD (5.0%), tumors (3.5%), hemoblastoses (0.7%), rheumatic autoimmune diseases (1.2%), and HIV-infection (0.4%) among ICU patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia was low.
ARDS in SARS-CoV-2 infection is more likely to develop in patients older than 40 years of age who have cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and/or obesity, although the prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity, unlike type 2 diabetes, in the ussian cohort did not exceed that in the general population.
COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, acute respiratory distress syndrome, ICU.